- Inflammatory process: viral or bacterial
- Neuromuscular impairment
- Musculoskeletal impairment
- Tracheobronchial obstruction
- Perception or cognitive impairment
- Decreased energy and fatigue
- Decreased lung expansion
- Changes in frequency or pattern of breathing (from the baseline value)
- Changes in pulse
- Orthopnea, Tachypnoea, hiperpnea, hyperventilation.
- Respiratory dysrhythmias
- Breathing is difficult / respiratory careful.
- Demonstrate effective breathing frequency, and having gas exchange in the lungs.
- Stating the factors that cause, if known, and expressed adaptive ways to overcome these factors.
Nursing Intervention Nursing Care Plan for Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Make sure the individual that such action is taken to ensure safety.
- Divert the attention of individuals from thinking about the state of anxiety by asking the individual to maintain eye contact with you. Say, "Now look at me and breathe slowly with me like this."
- Consider using a paper bag if it intends to issue a re-expiratory air.
- Stay together and train individuals to breathe slowly, breathe more effectively.
- Explain one can learn to overcome hyperventilation through conscious breath control when the cause is unknown.
- Discussing the possible causes, physical and emotional and effective treatment methods.