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Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage (International Association for the Study of Pain); sudden or slow onset of any intensity from mild to severe with an anticipated or predictable end and a duration of less than 6 months

Subjective data: from patient usually Verbal report of pain
Objective data: Observed evidence of pain, protective gestures avoid pain, Change in muscle tone, Expressive; restlessness, moaning, crying, vigilance, irritability, sighing.

Related factors :
  • trauma
  • injuring agents (biological, chemical, physical, psychological)

Nursing Outcomes :
  • Report pain is relieved / controlled.
  • Follow prescribed pharmacological regimen.
  • Verbalize methods that provide relief.
  • Demonstrate use of relaxation skills and diversional activities as indicated for individual situation.

Nursing Priority
  • To Assess Etiology/Precipitating Contributory Factors:
  • Evaluate Client’s Response To Pain:
  • Assist Client To Explore Methods For Alleviation/Control Of Pain

Sample Clinical Applications :
  • Traumatic Injuries
  • Surgical Procedures
  • Infections
  • Cancer
  • Burns
  • Skin Lesions
  • Gangrene
  • Thrombophlebitis
  • Pulmonary Embolus
  • Neuralgia