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Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma are usually caused by infectious agents

Pneumonia can be caused by various etiologies such as:
  • Bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, eneterobacter
  • Viruses: influenza virus, adenovirus
  • Micoplasma pneumonia
  • Fungi: Candida albicans
  • Aspiration: hull
Pneumonia is primarily due to infections, with less common irritants including Causes and the unknown. Although more than one hundred strains of micro organisms can cause pneumonia, only A Few are Responsible for most cases. The most common types of infectious viruses and bacteria are with it being less commonly due to fungal or Parasites. Mixed infections with viruses and bacterial Both may occur in up to 45% of infections in children and 15% of infections in adults. A causative agent is not isolated in approximately half of cases despite careful testing. Sometimes pneumonia is the term more broadly applied to inflammation of the lung (for example Caused by an autoimmune disease, chemical burns or drug reactions), however this is more accurately Referred to as pneumonitis.

Pneumonitis refers to lung inflammation; pneumonia refers to pneumonitis, usually due to infection but sometimes non infectious, that has the additional feature of pulmonary consolidation. Pneumonia can be classified in several ways. It is most commonly classified by where or how it was acquired (community-acquired, aspiration, healthcare-associated, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia), but may also be classified by the area of lung affected (lobar pneumonia, bronchial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia), or by the causative organism. Pneumonia in children may additionally be classified based on signs and symptoms as non-severe, severe, or very severe.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia
  1. Ineffective airway clearance related to the tracheal bronchial inflammation, edema formation, increased sputum production.

  2. Impaired gas exchange, related to impaired oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

  3. Risk for infection (spread) related to inadequate secondary defenses (immune suppression of infection), chronic disease, malnutrition.

  4. Activity intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply and demand.

  5. Pain (Acute) related to parenchymal lung inflammation, persistent cough.